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Instructions to Authors
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Please note: The Journal accepts electronic submissions only. Full instructions are available on the website at by clicking “Instructions to Authors” and “PakJAS Formatting Template”. The Editorial Office is pleased to offer help and advice to potential authors. Queries should be addressed to: Editorial Staff, Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences Editorial Office, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, PAKISTAN.

The Journal welcomes concise papers presenting original research data or methodology from authors throughout the world. The Editors wish to continue the policy of the Journal, since its foundation in 1964 of publishing papers in all aspects of agricultural sciences and reflecting the considerable and continuing changes in agriculture. Plant and crop science, soil science, animal science, environmental science and the relationships between them are covered. The Editors also welcome papers relating new scientific technology or concepts in such fields as genetics, biochemistry, biophysics and molecular biology to agricultural practice. In addition, the Journal publishes critical reviews from time to time, normally by invitation, on topics of interest to its readership.

The Editors must be informed if any of the material submitted has been published elsewhere. If a paper is accepted, it must not be published elsewhere in the same form. Experiments on animals must conform to the legislation in the country where the experiments were carried out. Work based on limited experimentation will not generally be considered acceptable. Work of local interest only is not considered appropriate for an international journal.

Scripts/submission of papers. Papers, written in English, must be submitted for review at The preferred word processing packages are Word and the preferred graphics package is Freehand, but files from many others may be accepted. Please indicate the file format used (e.g. TIFF, EPS, Freehand, JPEG etc). The typefaces used in electronic artwork supplied should be restricted to the Monotype, Adobe and Bitstream font libraries.

Layout and style. Authors are advised to use the format adopted in recent issues and a Word template can be downloaded here. A simple direct style of writing is preferred. Spelling should conform to that given in the Concise Oxford Dictionary.

Double-blind refereeing. This system of refereeing, where anonymity is preserved both for the authors and the referees, has been adopted by the Journal. Authors should give initials and surnames. The full name and address of the institution where the research was done should be stated. Change of address may be given as a footnote. Indicate the name and address corresponding author with “*” to which proofs should be sent and the e-mail address.

Title page. The title should be informative but concise and should not contain abbreviations. It should name the organism studied, where relevant. Authorities for Latin names should not be given in the title but should be given at first mention in the text. A short title, not exceeding 50 characters, should be provided for the running headlines.

Abstract, placed at the beginning of the text, should briefly indicate the experiments described (including year and place, as appropriate), the main results (preferably including some numerical values) and the most important conclusions. It should not repeat the wording of the title.

Text. It is usually convenient to divide the paper into 4 main sections, viz. Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. Too many headings and subheadings should be avoided. The Introduction should set the work in context, present only essential background, and include a concise statement of the objectives; a detailed review of the literature is not necessary. Relevant details should be given of the experimental materials and design, and the techniques and statistical methods used. Statistical guidelines are available on request. Numerical results should be shown in the tables and not repeated in the text. Metric and SI units should be used e.g. kg/ha, mg/l. Use of % should be restricted and used only to describe relative changes in responses. Experimental details and results should be reported in the past tense. The Discussion should draw together the results, briefly relate the author's results to other work on the subject, summarize any implications and applications and give the author's conclusions. Footnotes should not be used. All abbreviations used should be fully explained at first mention.

Tables must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited in the text. Numerical results should be displayed as means with their relevant standard errors and degrees of freedom. Normally a mean should be rounded to one-tenth of its standard error and the standard error given to one place of decimals more than the mean. The title should fully describe the contents of the Table and explain any abbreviations used in it. The Journal prefers not to have a proliferation of asterisks, superscript letters, etc. in tables. Asterisks should not be used to denote statistical significance. However, if footnotes are necessary, the following symbols may be used in this order: * † ‡ §.

Figures should be restricted to the display of results where a large number of values are presented and interpretation would be more difficult in a Table. Figures may not reproduce the same data as Tables and must be cited in the text. Figures must be saved as separate files, preferably as TIFF or JPEG files at approximately the size of reproduction. All files to be clearly named.
The following specifications are to be followed when saving files to ensure good quality reproduction for printing purposes.
Line artwork
Format: tif or eps
Colour mode: black and white (also known as 1-bit)
Resolution: 1200 dpi
Format: tif or eps
Combination artwork line/tone
Colour mode: Gray scale (also known as 8-bit)
Resolution: 800 dpi
Black and white halftone artwork
Format: tif
Colour mode: gray scale (also known as 8-bit)
Resolution: 300 dpi
Colour halftone artwork
Format: tif
Colour mode: CMYK
Lines should be bold enough to allow the Figure to be reduced to either single or double column width in the Journal. Vertical axes should be labelled vertically.
A legend, describing the Figure and giving a key to all the symbols on it, should be provided at the end of the manuscript after the references. The symbols preferred are and , but + and × should be avoided. Colour figures are discouraged; however, if they are necessary then the authors must contribute towards the cost of printing.

References. In the text, a reference should be quoted by the author's name and date in parentheses, in date order, e.g. (Jarvis, 1994; Edmondson, 1998). Where there are three or more authors, the first name followed by et al. should be used. A list of references should be given at the end of the text listing, in alphabetical order, surname of authors and initials (in capitals), year of publication (in parentheses), title of paper, name of journal abbreviated (in normal) as in CAB International Serials Checklist, volume, and first and last pages of the reference; the place of publication and publisher (and Editor(s) if appropriate) for books and conferences should be included. Examples:
In text:
Jarvis (1994); Jarvis (1994a,b); Scott and Jaggard (1993); (Edmondson, 1998); (Scott and Jaggard, 1993; Jarvis, 1994; Edmondson, 1998); Ferris et al. (1990); (Ferris et al., 1990); M.J. Jaskani(personal communication); (M.J. Jaskani, personal communication).
In reference list:
Article in journal, magazine and serial publication:
Altaf, S., M.M. Khan, M.J. Jaskani, I.A. Khan, M. Usman, B. Sadia, F.S. Awan, A. Ali and I.A. Khan. 2014. Morphogenetic characterization of seeded and seedless varieties of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Aust. J. Crop Sci. 8:1542-1549.
Aslam, M., M. Ismat, R.H. Qureshi, S. Nawaz and I.A. Mehmood. 1994. Paddy yield affected by planting techniques in a salt-affected soil. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 31:401-405.
Books (including bulletins, reports, multi-volume works, series):
Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A biometrical approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.
Chapter in a book:
Jaskani, M.J., M. Omura and I.A. Khan. 2007. Cytogenetics. In: I.A. Khan (ed.), Citrus Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology. CAB International, UK. pp.151-166.
Wiseman, J. 1990. Variability in the nutritive value of fats and non-ruminants. In: J. Wiseman and J.A. Cole (eds.), Feedstuffs Evaluation. Butterworths, London. pp.232-234.
Conference, symposium or workshop proceedings:
Khan, I.A., M.J. Jaskani, M.M. Khan and B. Fatima. 2002. Breeding for triploid seedless citrus fruits-A biotechnology approach. In: Y.A. Al-Shayji, J.S. Sidhu, M. Saleem and K. Guerinik (eds.), Biotechnology Applications for the Arid Regions. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait. pp.229-234.
Jaskani, M.J. and I.A. Khan. 2000. Characterization of interploid hybrids of Kinnow mandarin. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 1:165-166. Muhammad, S. and A. Ghafoor. 1986. Reclamation of two saline-sodic soil series through subsoiling and gypsum application using marginal water for leaching. In: R. Ahmad and A.S. Pietro (eds.), Prospects for Biosaline Research. Proc. US-Pak Biosaline Res. Workshop; Sept. 22-26, 1985. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. p.221-223.
Dissertation or thesis:
Mehmood, A. 2013. Physical, biochemical and moecular profiling of guava (Psidium guajava L.) germplasm. Ph.D. diss., Inst. Hort. Sci., Univ. Agric., Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Kirkegaard, J.A. 1990. Effect of compaction on the growth of pigeon pea on clay soils. Ph.D. diss., Dept. Soil Sci., Univ. Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
Software and websites:
National Agricultural Statistics Service. 1997. Crops county data. Available online with updates at http://usda.mannlib.comell. edu/data-sets/crops/9X100
Organization/ Govt. department documents:
Anonymous. 2014-15. Pakistan Economic Survey 2014-15. Finance and Economic Affairs Division, Ministry of Finance, Govt. of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan.
GoP. 2013-14. Agricultural Statistics Year Book 2013-14. Ministry of National Food Security and Research, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Authors should check that all references in the text appear at the end of the paper and vice versa, and that the names and dates correspond in the two places. The accuracy of presentation of each reference in the list should be carefully checked.

Proofs are sent to authors as pdfs to enable them to check the correctness of the typesetting and must be returned within a week. Excessive alterations due to amendments of the author's original agreed copy may be charged to the author.

Offprints. Contributors will receive a complimentary pdf of their paper on publication.
Style and Editorial Conventions
Please use the following style:
Dates. (e.g.) 12 October 1999; from 12 April to 22 May (but 12–18 July).
Months. Abbreviate to three letters, no stops, when necessary in Figs or Tables, e.g., May, Jun, Sep.
Years. Use (e.g.) 2011–12 or 'from 2011 to 2015' or 'between 2011 and 2015'.
For a single season use (e.g.) 2012-13.
Time. 06.30 h, 4 h day.
Numbers. Avoid numerals at the beginning of a sentence; spell out or change word order if necessary.
Cardinal and ordinal numerals: spell out up to ten, but note e.g. 3rd–5th leaf stage, 6 million tonnes. Numerals before units, including time, e.g. 3 ha, 5 kg, 30 s (seconds), 20 min, 4 h, 8 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, 2 years.
Do not use commas in thousands, e.g. 2600, 23000. Give ranges in full, e.g. 475–489.
A zero must always precede a decimal point, e.g. 0.58.
Avoid confusion with consecutive figures by spelling out the first, e.g. two 3-year-old cows. For ratios use a colon, e.g. 17:24, not a solidus.
Units. See Units, Symbols and Abbreviations, 4th Ed. (1988) (Ed. D.N. Baron). London: Royal Society of Medicine Services.
SI units are preferred.
NB. Give cation exchange capacity in mmol (+)/kg not mequiv. Please use g/kg, mg/kg, mg/l, μM, ml/l, dS m-1 etc.
Use kg/ha, or t/ha, not quintals.
For international units, use SI units where possible.
Use 'litres' in full after numbers where confusion could arise with the numeral l; e.g. use 5 litres/day but 5 ml/l.
Rates should be expressed by a solidus, e.g. kg/ha, 6 kg/ha, 3 plants/m² (not 3 plants m-²), 7 kg/ha per year.
Do not repeat units in lists, e.g. 3, 10, 17 and 30°C; 20 or 30% more with no space. Use % after numbers, not per cent, e.g. 7%.
Abbreviations. All abbreviations must be explained at first mention in the text (and should not be used in the title), e.g. leaf area index (LAI), dry matter (DM), artificial insemination (AI), acid detergent fibre (ADF).
Use full stops after words cut off short of their end, e.g. Fig., Ed. Do not use stops where the last letter of the abbreviation is that of the complete word, e.g. Figs, Expt, Expts, Eqn, Eqns. At the beginning of a sentence, write in full.
Quotations. In general, use single quotes, e.g. 'headland'.
Spelling and Style. Follow the Concise Oxford Dictionary and, for scientific terms, the CAB Thesaurus, Wallingford: CAB International.
NB. Use –ize, ization endings, e.g. minimize, organization, except for words whose noun ends in -is e.g. analyse, synthesised. Use (e.g.) connection not connexion.
Please try to avoid using the following words:
level (use content, concentration, rate; or just omit)
elevated (to mean increased)
presently (to mean currently or at present)
parameter (to mean variable, trait, character)
population (to mean population density)
densities (to mean population density).
References. For full details, see Instructions to Authors page. Papers accepted by a journal but not yet published should be given in the text as Ferris et al. (in press) or (Ferris et al., in press) and in the reference list as
Ferris, C.P., F.J. Gordon, D.C. Patterson and D.J. Kilpatrick. in press. The influence of dairy cow genetic merit on the direct and residual response to level of concentrate supplementation. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge.
If, by the proof stage, the publication details are still not known, cite in the text as (C.P. Ferris et al., unpublished) and delete from the reference list. Otherwise, give date, volume and page numbers.

Statistical Note for Authors
The Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences has a tradition of setting high standards regarding the statistical methods contained in its papers. Although it is impracticable to present here a comprehensive survey of acceptable statistical analyses, it is nevertheless useful to point out some common practices which have and have not found favour with the editors. In order to speed up assessment of submitted papers, authors are advised to pay particular attention to the following.
1. The description of the experimental designs and statistical analyses should be clear and concise. From this description, readers must be able to understand exactly how the experiment was conducted and how the data were analysed. When presenting initial numerical summaries of the experimental material (e.g. starting weights, ages) variation should be represented by ranges or standard deviations.
2. The favoured method of presenting experimental results is by quoting estimated values of the relevant statistics (mean values, regression coefficients, etc.), together with the appropriate standard errors of those estimates. The degrees of freedom (D.F.) on which the standard errors (S.E.) are based should also be quoted. This will usually assist the referees and the general reader in understanding the experimental procedure.
3. Each statistical method has its own assumptions and should be used only if all its requirements are fulfilled. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) requires that the response variable should be normally distributed and uncorrelated with equal variance at each level of the qualitative factor.
4. Authors should make every effort to ensure that the standard errors which are quoted are suitable for the comparisons which they wish to make. When in doubt, authors should seek the guidance of a statistician.
5. Repeated measurements over time or spatial data from, for example, crop disease or competition studies often give rise to correlated data that require special methods of analysis. Usually, it will be necessary to seek specialist advice before attempting an analysis of data of this type. A standard reference book is Diggle, P.J., K-Y. Liang, and S.L. Zeger. 1994. The Analysis of Longitudinal Data. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
6. The Journal will not publish tables containing a proliferation of asterisks or other indicators of statistical significance. Although statistically appropriate tests of hypotheses are acceptable, they should be employed sparingly and with discretion. Probability values (e.g. P<0.01) may be quoted in the text.
7. Standard statistical models should be fully described using correct terminology so that the reader can understand the techniques that were used to model the data. Normally, this will involve some discussion of the data and some explanation of the choice of statistical model used.
8. The uncritical and indiscriminate use of 'multiple comparison' procedures, particularly when the treatment structure provides a logical basis for testing, is inappropriate. Since the researchers always strive for planned comparisons, therefore, whenever the treatments have intrinsic structure only the contrast analysis address such research hypotheses. Whenever a researcher uses a quantitative treatment, the objective is to find the level of the quantitative treatment which gives the optimum value of the response and this can be achieved using trend analysis. The results of exhaustive, retrospective tests of hypotheses are not acceptable.
9. Authors should aim to combine the virtues of simplicity and statistical rigour in the analysis of their data. Unnecessarily complex statistical methodology should be avoided. Where more sophisticated procedures are essential, great care needs to be taken in describing the method, and adequate references should be cited.
10. The Journal will not normally publish routine Analysis of Variance tables used for calculating standard errors and significance tests. The underlying Analysis of Variance tables should be shown only if components of variance are of especial interest or if an unavoidably complex design has been used.
11. Where a statistical package is used for analysis or modeling of data, it will normally be necessary to give an explicit reference to the package and the techniques used with appropriate page numbers from the Reference Manual. With editorial agreement, novel computer code may be listed in an appendix.
12. Statistical models with factorial structure must normally conform to the principle that factorial interaction effects of a given order should not be included unless all lower order effects and main effects contained within those interaction effects are also included. Similarly, models with polynomial factor effects of a given degree should normally include all corresponding polynomial factor effects of a lower degree (e.g. a factor with a quadratic effect should also have a linear effect).
13. Main effects should be explained/ exploited only if interaction involving them is not significant. Otherwise the significant interaction should be explored further and focus should be on the interaction effects only.

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